What is Arbutin?
Arbutin is a naturally occurring derivative of hydroquinone, used in cosmetics products for whitening. It works by slowly releasing hydroquinone through hydrolysis, which in turn blocks Tyrosinase activity and reduces the skin’s melanin (pigmentation) production. It appears in two different forms: Alpha-Arbutin or Beta-Arbutin.
- Alpha Arbutin – This is the purest and most effective form of arbutin (especially when compared to beta arbutin). It’s a powerful skin lightener and works on all skin types. Alpha arbutin is expensive to manufacture which is why usually only high quality products contain this ingredient. Watch our for cheap products which claim to contain “arbutin” but formulate it in the beta formulation. In addition Alpha arbutin is also more stable than Beta arbutin.
- Beta Arbutin – This form of arbutin is often referred to as just “arbutin” so if you don’t see the ingredient list specifying the Alpha component then you can assume it’s probably in the beta formulation. This formulation is cheaper to produce and manufacture and is not as effective as alpha arbutin. Newer skin products contain alpha arbutin while older cosmetic products contain either “beta arbutin” or simply “arbutin”.
Where does Arbutin come from?
Arbutin, also known as Alpha-Arbutin occurs naturally in several different plant species. Plants with the highest known concentrations are bearberry and mulberry. It is also found in blueberry, cranberry, wheat, and pear varieties. FYZ CO., LTD extract arbutin from bearberry leaf. Bearberry was one of the few known naturally-occurring anti-microbial medicines. The antimicrobial activity is due in part to the presence of Arbutin. Bearberry is traditionally used to treat urinary tract infections. Synthetic forms of Arbutin can be created by chemical synthesis or by an enzyme-catalyzed process. In vitro studies of 7% Arbutin appear to have a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production.
How Does it Work?
Arbutin is composed of hydroquinone with a sugar group attached. The hydroquinone group allows Arbutin to act as an inhibitor of tyrosinase, a key enzyme involved in melanin (pigment) production. This inhibitory activity is due to the structural similarity of the hydroquinone group to tyrosine, which is the natural substrate for tyrosinase. In addition to its innate inhibitory effect, Arbutin may also act as a reservoir that slowly releases hydroquinone. Once absorbed into the skin, enzymes within the body can cleave off the sugar group from Arbutin, releasing hydroquinone. This acts like a built-in safety valve, preventing the skin from being exposed to too much hydroquinone at once.
How Effective is It?
Researchers have been studying Arbutin’s ability to inhibit tyrosinase in skin cells, since the 1990s. There is promising scientific evidence to suggest Arbutin is effective as a skin lightening agent, particularly with regards to the synthetic forms, A-Arbutin and deoxyarbutin. However, most of this evidence is from animal studies or in vitro studies on cultured human skin cells.
What can Arbutin Treat?
- Melasma and Chloasma
Are there any Side Effects?
It is argued that naturally-sourced Arbutin does not have side effects and safety issues for the user as it is naturally sourced. If the compound is sourced from synthetic sources such as hydroquinone, it is said to be unsafe for topical use on the skin. However, in alkaline conditions, Arbutin converts into hydroquinone, which means that it becomes unsafe in some circumstances. The skin does not have an alkaline environment, that is why Arbutin does not hydrolyze into hydroquinone. So, is Alpha Arbutin safe? Yes, but not hydroquinone.
Why do whitening products use Arbutin?
- It is a topical non-prescription treatment that does not contain hydroquinone.
- It is an effective skin brightening alternative when compared to hydroquinone based skin brightening formulas.
- This skin brightening cream is specially formulated with anti-oxidants and Arbutin that make the skin even and improve the skin tone.
- It works for skins with hyperpigmentation, brown marks and those with sun-damage concerns on the skin.
- It makes the skin clear and radiant.
- It is an Arbutin-enriched formulation that provides a natural-looking, youthful glow to all skin types.
- Arbutin, a natural botanical extract derived from plants such as bearberry, pear, and pomegranate, naturally possesses skin-brightening property.
- It visibly reduces the signs of premature ageing, acne flares, and further photo-damage.
- The best hydroquinone alternatives used in this product include antioxidants and Arbutin.